Metabolic Syndrome (Syndrome X)

What is Syndrome X?

A cluster of disorders is called the “Metabolic Syndrome” (formerly called Syndrome X OR Dysmetabolic syndrome). Some experts identify it with the term “The Deadly Quartet”.

In this cluster there are several disorders listed below:



[Go to Obesity]

Glucose intolerance

[Go to Diabetes]


[Go to Diabetes]

Syndrome X

[This page]

Insulin resistance

[Go to Insulin Resistance]

High cholesterol 

[Go to Cholesterol]


[Go to Hypertension]

As per the Position paper of National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel (ATP-III) the Metabolic Syndrome or Syndrome X is defined as presence of any three of the following:

Who are at risk for metabolic syndrome or insulin resistance?

Checking for C-peptide and OGTT may be far off things for most people. But you may very well undergo these tests if you meet any of the following conditions:

You are obese (BMI >25) [What is BMI?]

Any close relative had diabetes or heart disease

You have hypertension

Your lifestyle is sedentary

What will happen if metabolic syndrome and/or insulin resistance are untreated?

If you are genetically predisposed to developing type-2 diabetes, and this state of insulin resistance continues for some time (several years), the beta cells in pancreas which produce insulin will be doing overwork and eventually burnout. The result is lower number of beta cells in pancreas-> lower production of insulin-> higher levels of glucose in the blood-> Glucose intolerance->Diabetes!

So it is clear from the above discussion that the end result of insulin resistance is diabetes for some people. Diabetes in itself is not an end in itself! If diabetes remains untreated there will be complications of diabetes some of which are life-threatening.

How are metabolic syndrome and/or insulin resistance treated?

Lifestyle modification is the best treatment for both these disorders. Low calorie nutritous balanced diet (visit the page Nutrition) combined with physical activity/exercise is the best option to prevent/delay the onset of type-2 diabetes.

The metabolic syndrome X is in the news because it is a risk factor for diabetes and heart disease

For more information: go here:(external links)